The Earth is an Antioxidant P < 0.05

A week ago, a new study published in Frontiers Physiology titled, “Effectiveness of Grounded Sleeping on Recovery After Intensive Eccentric Muscle Loading” investigated the effects of grounding on recovery in athletes.1 What the Heck Is Grounding? For those who are unaware of what grounding is, the authors give a very brief explanation here in their introduction, Grounding, earthing, or grounded sleeping, is a process in which the athlete becomes grounded via an electrically conducted device. Read More

Does Protein Increase the Risk of Heart Failure?

About three weeks ago, a cohort study was published in Circulation that claimed that protein consumption was associated with heart failure. The press reacted as I expected them to. If you read some of these articles, most of them seem to conclude that a high protein diet is probably not good for you and that Americans eat too much protein. Anyway, back to this study. Given the nature and limits of these types of studies (you can read more about that here) I was a bit skeptical, but also open to the idea that there might be a possible relationship between increased protein consumption and an increased rate of heart failure. Read More

False Positives, FWER, and FDR Explained

If you torture your data long enough, they will tell you whatever you want to hear - Mills (1993) False positives via statistical hypothesis testing are a severe problem in the scientific literature (Ioannidis, 2005). If a statistically significant finding looks real, but it’s not, and we make policy or clinical decisions based on this finding, it can have catastrophic consequences. Unfortunately, many researchers are still unaware exactly why false positives are so prevalent in the scientific literature, so, I’ve decided to explain some of the common reasons for the high prevalence. Read More

Four Misconceptions About Statistical Power

Statistical power, within the context of hypothesis testing, is the probability of rejecting the test hypothesis at a specified level, given that the alternative hypothesis is true. In simpler words, it’s the probability of finding a statistically significant effect, when there is one. Here, I address some misconceptions I often see about statistical power. Misconception: Statistical power can only be increased with larger sample sizes Truth: Nope. Here are some other things that increase statistical power: Read More